Vorbirea Indirecta in Engleza – Ce trebuie sa stii?


Ce trebuie sa stii despre Reported Speech?

Vorbirea Indirecta este importanta pentru a putea povesti sau reda ce a spus, a intrebat, a sugerat, a decis sau cu ce a fost de acord altcineva.

Cand inveti Engleza si esti cel putin la nivelul mediu, este bine sa te asiguri ca stii cum functioneaza vorbirea indirecta.


Asta inseamna ca ai invatat si stapanesti toate timpurile verbale de la Prezent pana la Viitor.

Ce inseamna vorbirea indirecta?

Cand spunem cuiva ce a spus o alta persoana, folosim verbe precum:

  • say, tell or ask.
    Aboneaza-te Clubul de Engleza
    Aboneaza-te Clubul de Engleza
  • I’ll have a salad, please. Vreau sa comand o salata.
    He decided to have a salad. A hotarat sa comande o salata.
  • I’ll do the job by Friday. Voi face treaba pana vineri.
  • She promised to do the job by Friday. A promis sa faca treaba pana vineri.
  • It’s not a good idea to stay out in the rain.  Nu este o idee buna sa stati afara in ploaie.
  • They advised us not to stay out in the rain. Ne-au sfatuit sa nu stam afara in ploaie.
  • I’m sorry I’m late again. Imi pare rau ca am intarziat din nou.
  • He apologized for being late again. S-a scuzat pentru ca a intarziat din nou.
  • Alright. I’ll listen. Ok. Voi asculta.
  • He agreed to listen. A fost de acord sa asculte.
  • Good luck! she said. Noroc! A spus ea.
  • She said good luck to me! Ea mi-a urat noroc.

Verbe urmate de forma ING

Unele verbe precum: admit, apologise for, complain about, deny, insist on, mention si suggest pot fi urmate de verb+ing.

  • I broke the window.  Am spart geamul.
    He admitted breaking the window. A recunoscut ca a spart geamul.
  • Let’s take a break. Sa luam o pauza.
    She suggested taking a break. A sugerat sa luam o pauza.
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Verbe la trecut urmate de ‘that’

Folosim verbe precum: say, tell or ask pentru a povesti cuiva ce a spus altcineva.
Verbele sunt folosite la trecut si sunt urmate de niste conjunctii:

  • He said that…  A spus ca …
    He told me that…Mi-a spus ca …
    He asked if/whether… A intrebat daca…

Timpurile Verbale – Verb Tenses

Present Simple – Past Simple

  • I always drink tea in the morning. Intotdeauna beau ceai dimineata.
    She said that she always drank tea in the morning. A spus ca intotdeauna bea ceai dimineata.

Vestea buna este ca pot renunta la ‘that’, mai ales in vorbire.

  • She said that she always drank tea in the morning. A spus ca intotdeauna bea ceai dimineata.
Exceptii de la regula

Daca actiunea este valabila si in momentul vorbirii, pot folosi Present Simple. Ex.

  • I have a test on Monday. Am lucrare/test luni.
    He said he has a test on Monday. Azis ca are lucrare/test luni.
Present Continuous – Past Continuous
  • I’m playing tennis. Joc tenis.
    He said he was playing tennis. A zis ca joaca tenis.

Exceptie:

Daca actiunea este valabila si in momentul vorbirii, pot folosi Present Continuous

  • He said he is playing tennis. A zis ca joaca tenis.

Present Perfect – Past Perfect Simple

  • I have been to Italy twice. Am fost de 2 ori in Italia.
    He said (that) he had been to Italy twice. A zis ca a fost de 2 ori in Italia.
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Past Simple – Past Perfect Simple
  • I saw this film last night. Am vazut acest film aseara.
    He said he had seen that film the night before.

Future Simple devine Future in the past – will devine would

  • I will remember this. Imi voi aminti asta.
    He said he would remember that. A zis ca isi va aminti acea…

Adjectivele si adverbele

Nu doar timpurile se schimba. Se schimba si adjective, pronume si adverbele.

  • This devine that. acesta/aceasta – acela/aceea
  • tonight devine that night diseara – in acea seara
  • Today devine that day.   astazi devina in acea zi.
    this week devine that week saptamana aceasta devina saptamana aceea
  • here devine there. aici devine acolo
  • this day devine that day aceasta zi devine acea zi
  • these days devine those days zilelea acestea devine zilele acelea
  • Last night devine -the night before sau the previous night.
  • two days ago devine two days before. acum doua zile devine cu doua zile inainte

Verbele modale la Reported Speech:

Cum se schimba verbele modale atunci cand folosim vorbirea Indirecta?

The most important Modal verbs: Can, May, Must si cum se schimba ele.

  • Can – Could
    I can help you.Te pot ajuta.
    She said she could help me. A spus ca poate sa ma ajute.
  • Must- Had to
    I must do this. Trebuie sa fac asta.
    He said he had to do that. A spus ca trebuie sa faca asta.
  • Have to – Had to
    I have to be here. Trebuie sa fiu aici.
  • He said he had to be there. A spus ca trebuie sa fie acolo.
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He said he had to be there.

  • May-Might
    It may rain. Poate ca o sa ploua.
    He said it might rain. A spus ca s-ar putea sa ploua.

Intrebari in Reported Speech. Questions

Asa cum probabil stii deja, in intrebari, folosim verbul sau auxiliarul inaintea subiectului. In intrebarile indirecte, regula aceasta nu mai este valabila. Practic, intrebarile indirecte se comporta exact ca si propozitiile afirmative.

Ex.

  • What is this? Ce este aceasta?

devine:

  • He asked her what that was. A intrebat-o ce era aceea?
  • What do you want?  Ce vrei? devine He asked him what he wanted. L-a intrebat ce vrea.
  • Where are you going? Unde te duci? devine: He asked him where he was going. L-a intrebat unde se duce(a).

Ordinele in vorbirea Indirecta

Cand dam un ordin, o porunca, exprimam un imperativ, forma imperativa se transforma in infinitive.
Imperative -Infinitive

  • Come back! Vino aici devine He asked him to come back.
  • Stand up. Stai in picioare! He ordered him to stand up. I-a ordonat sa stea in picioare.

Nu uita sa lasi un comentariru mai jos, daca ai intrebari! Aboneaza-te la Clubul de Engleza, canalul de You Tube, unde poti invata Engleza online, Gratuit!


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