Substantivele numarabile si nenumarabile in Limba Engleza
Este important sa stii ca sunt cateva reguli dupa care poti folosi corect substantivele numarabile si nenumarabile. Trebuie sa le inveti asa cum sunt. Pentru a invata limba Engleza corect, trebuie sa te asiguri ca poti face diferenta intre unele si altele.
In limba Engleza, substantivele pot fi numarabile sau nenumarabile. Orice poate fi numarat, indiferent ca este la singular sau plural, este substantiv numarabil.
Cum facem diferente intre substantivele numarabile si cele nenumarabile?
- Substantivele numarabile pot fi numarate: an apple, two apples, three apples.
- Substantivele nenumarabile nu pot fi numarate: air, rice, water, advice, information, bread, rice, water, coffee, information, money, advice, luggage, furniture, knowledge
Cand inveti substantive noi, trebuie sa verifici daca sunt numarabile sau nenumarabile si cum le poti folosi in propozitii.
Ai niste exemple, mai jos, pentru a vedea cum poti folosi substantivele numarabile si nenumarabile in propozitii:
- There isn’t any coffee.
- I’m making a cup of tea.
- Have we got any bread?
- How many chairs do we need?
- How much milk have we got?
Substantive numarabile -Exemple
Mai jos, ai exemple de substantive numarabile, folosite in propozitii.
a dog, a house, a photograph, a car, a friend, a few books, lots of apples.
- They bought a house in London, last year.
- Megan took a lot of photographs when she went to London.
- Your mug is on the kitchen table.
- He eats lots of apples.
- You are a good friend.
- I saw a car parked in front of her house.
- How many candles are on that birthday cake?
- There’s a big brown dog running around.
In propozitii afirmative, folosim ”a/an” for singular nouns si ”some” pentru plural.
- There’s a man at the door.
- I have some friends in London.
In propozitii negative, folosim ”a/an” pentru singular si ”any” pentru plural.
- I don’t have a dog.
- There aren’t any seats.
Cum folosim: a, some, any, much si many?
”Some” se foloseste in propozitii afirmative si ”any” cu propozitii negative.
- There’s some money on the table.
- There’s some almond milk in the fridge.
Intrebari cu a/ an, sau ”how many”
In intrebari, folosim: ”a/an, any” sau ”how many” cu substantive numarabile.
- Is there an email address to write to?
- Are there any chairs?
- How many chairs are there?
”Any” sau ”how much”
Folosim ”any” sau ”how much” cu substantive nenumarabile:
- Is there any sugar?
- How much orange juice is there?
”Some” pentru a cere sau a oferi ceva
Cand oferim ceva sau cerem ceva, folosim some, in mod normal:
- Do you want some chocolate? (Ne referim la ceva anume.)
- Can we have more chairs, please?
Some in intrebari
Putem folosi ”some” in intrebari atunci cand credem ca raspunsul va fi: Da.
- Have you got some new glasses?
Alte expresii care arata cantitatea:
A lot of (or lots of) – poate fi folosit atat cu subtantive numarabile cat si cu substantive de cantitate.
- There are lots of apples on the trees.
There is a lot of snow on the road.
Poti observa ca in propozitii afirmative, nu folosim ”many” ci ”a lot”.
- They have a lot of money.
In propozitii negative, folosim ”not many” cu substantive numarabile si ”not much” cu substantive nenumarabile
- There are a lot of carrots but there aren’t many potatoes.
- There’s lots of juice but there isn’t much water.
Substantive nenumarabile – Exemple
Orice nu poate fi numarat este substantiv nenumarabil sau de cantitate. Desi substantivele nenumarabile nu sunt obiecte individuale, sunt considerate ca avand forme de singular. Astfel, ele vor fi folosite cu verbul la singular.
Iata cum putem deosebi substantivele nenumarabile:
- There is no more water in the pond.
- Please help yourself to some coffee.
- I need to find information about the Global Warming.
- He seems to have a high level of intelligence.
- Please take good care of your equipment!
Substantive nenumarabile pot fi folosite cuvinte la plural. Pentru a exprima cantitatea, folosim forme precum: piece, bar, glass, loaf, slice etc
- Water – Try to drink at least eight glasses of water each day.
- Advice – She gave me a useful piece of advice.
- Bread – Please buy a loaf of bread!
- Furniture – A bed is a piece of furniture that you need in your house.
In Engleza, unele lucruri sunt considerate ca intreg sau masa. Sunt considerate nenumarabile substantivele care nu pot fi separate sau divizate.
- Cuvinte care exprima idei si experienta: advice, information, progress, news, luck, fun, work
- Materiale si substante: water, rice, concrete, gold, milk
- Cuvinte care se refera la vreme: weather, thunder, lightning, rain, snow
- Nume care inseamna colectii de lucruri: furniture, equipment, rubbish, luggage
Alte substantive nenumarabile: accommodation, baggage, homework, knowledge, money, permission, research, traffic
Aceste substantive nu se folosesc cu: a/an sau numere si nu au forma de plural.
- We’re going to get new furniture for the living room.
- We had terrible weather yesterday. Nu:
We had a terrible weather last week.
- We need rice next time we go shopping.
Expresii care arata cantitatea (a bit/piece)
Pentru a exprima cantitatea cu substantive nenumarabile, folosim expresii precum: ”a bit of, a piece of, an item of” sau cuvinte care exprima recipiente si unitati de masura:
- We bought a very expensive piece of furniture for our new house.
- Ann always has some exciting pieces of news when she comes to see us.
- I think we’ll need five bags of cement for the patio.
- There’s a litre of coconut milk in the fridge for you. And I have bought you a bar of chocolate.
My, Some, The
Substantive nenumarabile. my, her, some, any, no, the, this, that si expresii de cantitate: a lot of, (a) little:
- They gave me some information about school when we met.
- Have you heard the news? Ann is getting engaged.
- She’s been studying hard and has made a lot of progress.
- There’s no work to do here, so you can go home if you like.
- This oat milk’s a bit old, I’m afraid.
Forme de plural pentru substantive nenumarabile
Unele substantive nenumarabile au forme de plural de dar sunt considerate de cantitate pentru ca nu putem folosi numere cu ele. Exemple de substantive nenumarabile cu forme de plural: shorts, pyjamas, glasses (ochelari de vedere), binoculars, scissors.
- I bought two pairs of trousers.
- I can’t see well. I think I need new glasses.
Substantive care pot fi atat numarabile cat si nenumarabile
Unele substantive pot fi folosite pentru a exprima diferite lucruri. Nu isi schimba forma dar poti avea sensuri diferite in functie de context.
Unele substantive pot fi atat numarabile cat si nenumarabile. In functie de context, ele vor avea si sens diferit.
Exemple de substantive care pot fi folosite ca numarabile sau de nenumarabile, in contexte diferite.
Iron – fier, fier de calcat
iron – material. They used iron to make that car part.
iron – electrical appliance. I ruined my dress with the iron.
Glass – stcila material, pahar
glass – material. Glass can be recycled from old bottles.
glass – container. Recipient. There was wine in the glass.
Time – timp, numar ( de cate ori)
time – length of an activity How much time did it take you to do the job?
time – number of instances. I have seen the film many times.
Paper- hartie, eseu, ziar
paper – material Books are made of paper.
paper – a report or essay He wrote a paper on grammar.
paper -a newspaper I read about it in the paper.
Light- lumina, lampa
light – energy form I closed my eyes against the bright light.
light – lamps / light bulbs I switched on the light in the bedroom.
Work munca, lucru
work – an activity Get on with your work!
work – a product This is the work of Shakespeare.
Chicken carne de pui, gaini
chicken – food They used to eat chicken for dinner. Now they are vegan.
chicken – kind of animal They keep chickens in the back yard.
Hair par, fire de par
hair -hair in general. Par in general. She had thick brown hair.
hair – individual strands of hair. Fire individuale de par. He had a few grey hairs on his temples.
Room – spatiu, camera
room – space Is there enough room for me?
room – place They had to sit in the waiting room for an hour.
Coffee, Water, Beer, Tea, Soda
coffee – drink I like tea better than coffee.
coffee – number of drinks Two strong black coffees, please!
Meat – carne, feluri de carne
meat – food. I gave up eating meat a few years ago.
meat – type of meat. I hate eating red meats like beef and lamb.
Fruit – fruct/e, tipuri de fructe
fruit – food. The fruit was too sour to eat.
fruit – kind of fruit. She sells fruits at a market stall.
experience – knowledge or skill My lack of practical experience was a disadvantage.
experience – an incident that affects you. It was her first experience of living alone.
Fire – foc ca element, focuri, incendii
fire – element Most animals are afraid of fire.
fire – a burning pile. Firemen put out fires.
Memory – memorie, amintiri
memory – the ability to remember information. I have a very good visual memory.
memory – specific memories of past events. Amintiri specifice din trecut. He’s trying to block out memories of the accident.
Quantifiers – Adverbe care sunt folosite cu substantive numarabile si nenumarabile.
many – multi, multe
much – mult, multa
(a) little – putin, putina
(a) few – putini, putine
some – niste
several – catva, catva, cativa, cateva
a couple of – cateva
a (little) bit of – un pic de, putin
enough – suficient, suficienta, suficienti, suficiente
plenty of – destul, destula, destui, destule
a lot of / lots of – o gramada de/ mult, multe, multi
all of the – tot, toata / toti, toate
any – niste (folosit in propozitii negative si interogative cu sensul de niste)
Have you got any money? I haven’t hot any money.
In propozitii afirmative are alt sens: You can pick any of the books you see. (Oricare dintre)
Substantive numarabile si nenumarabile – exercitii
Invata Engleza prin exercitii! Ce tip de substantive avem in aceste propozitii?
The children fell asleep quickly after a busy day of fun.
Be careful! The water is deep.
The parade included fire trucks and police cars.
We like the large bottles of mineral water.
My mother uses real butter in the cakes she bakes.
How many politicians does it take to pass a simple law?
Most kids like milk, but Joey hates it.
Most pottery is made of clay.
Michael can play several different musical instruments.