Substantive in Engleza la plural

Pluralul substantivelor in limba Engleza

Astazi vorbim despre substantive in Engleza la plural. Este o tema importanta pentru toti cei care vor sa invete sa vorbeasca corect in limba Engleza.

Ce inseamna pluralul substantivelor? Este forma care ne arata ca exista mai mult de o persoana, obiect, loc, idee etc. In alte cuvinte, cand vorbim despre pluralul substantivelor, ne referim la mai mult de un lucru, fiinte, fenomene, stari, idei etc.

Spunem ca avem forme regulate de plural sau substantive regulata daca primesc terminatie: -s.  Pentru forma de plural, substantivele primesc terminatia: -s, -es, sau -ies, in functie de litera de la finalul cuvantului.

Iata ce trebuie sa stii despre substantive pentru a invata Engleza corect!

  • Cum se formeaza pluralul substantivelor?
  • Substantive regulate in Engleza
  • Substantive neregulate
  • Substantive cu forme identice la singular si plural
  • Exercitii cu substantive la plural

Invata Engleza corect! Substantive in Engleza la plural

Pentru cele mai multe substantive, pluralul se formeaza prin adaugarea unui -s. Astfel, vom avea: Ex

Substantive in Engleza, la plural, traduse in limba romana.

Cele mai multe dintre aceste substantive sunt destul de cunsocute. Preferam sa le traducem pentru a ne asigura ca, totusi, le stim.

  • bottle – bottles       sticla/sticle
  • cup – cups             ceasca/cesti
  • pencil – pencils      pix/pixuri
  • desk – desks          birou/birouri
  • sticker – stickers    sticker/stickere
  • window – windows fereastra/fereastra
  • house – houses      casa/case
  • car – cars                masina/masini

Substantivele care se termina in

Pentru a forma pluralul, substantivele care se termina in urmatoarele litere: -s, -ss, -sh, -ch, -x, or -z, adauga -es la final. Astfel, vom avea: Ex

  • Forma de singular  Forma de plural
  • kiss                         kisses     sarut/saruturi
  • wish                        wishes    dorinta dorinte
  • match                     matches  meci/meciuri/chibrit/chibrituri
  • fox                          foxes       vulpe/vulpi
  • quiz                        quizzes   chestionar/chestionare
  •  I have found the matches.
  • Can you believe they still hunt foxes in England?

Substantive care se termina in -y precedat de consoana

Cand substantivul se termina in consoana + y, inlaturam y si ramane -ies la sfarsit. Astfel, vom avea: Ex

  • Singular Plural
  • party       parties    petrecere/petreceri
  • lady        ladies     doamna/doamne
  • story       stories    poveste/povesti
  • nanny     nannies  dadaca/dadace
  • city         cities       oras/orase
  • country   countries tara/tari
  • puppy     puppies  catelus/catelusi
  • candy     candies  bomboana/bomboane
  • Good stories sell products.

Substantive care se termina in -y precedat de vocala

Daca substantivul la singular se termina in -y, precedat de vocala, la pluralprimeste doar -s

  • ray – rays raza/raze
  • boy – boys baiat/baieti

Substantive care se termina in -f sau -fe

Daca substantivul se termina in -f sau -fe, inlturam -f sau -fe si adaugam -ves la sfarsit.

  • Singular Plural
  • life       viata     lives  vieti                They live different lives in these countries.
  • leaf     frunza    leaves frunze          There are many yellow leaves on this park bench.
  • thief    hot         thieves hoti             The thieves were caught and taken to prison.
  • wife     sotie      wives sotii/neveste The man had three wives in only five years.
  • loaf     franzela  loaves franzele       I bought three loaves of bread in the morning.
  • hoof     copita    hooves copite         I could see the marks of the hooves in the sand.

Sunt cateva exceptii:

  • roof – roofs acoperis
  • cliff – cliffs  stanci
  • chief – chiefs sef
  • belief – beliefs credinta
  • chef – chefs bucatar

Substantive care se termina in -o

Daca substantivul se termina in consoana + O, in mod normal adaugam -ES la sfarsit.

  • Singular Plural
  • tomato  rosie      tomatoes rosii
  • potato   cartof     potatoes cartofi
  • echo     ecou      echoes ecouri
  • hero      erou      heroes eroi
  • Exceptii: piano – pianos, halo – halos, photo – photos

NOTE: Volcano poate avea doua forme, ambele corecte. volcanos si volcanoes.

Substantive cu plural neregulat in Engleza

Exista subtantive la care nu se aplica aceste reguli. Sunt substantive neregulate. Acestea au forme diferite pentru plural. Trebuie invatate asa cum sunt.

  • Singular Plural
  • man barbat          men barbati
  • woman femei       women femei
  • child  copil            children copii
  • foot  picior            feet picioare
  • tooth  dinte            teeth dinti
  • goose gasca        geese gaste
  • mouse soarece    mice soareci
  • die   zar                dice zaruri
  • louse paduche    lice paduchi
  • curriculum           curricula curiculum
  • datum data          data date
  • There is a child in the park.
  • There are many children in the park.

Substantive fara plural

Sunt substantive care au aceeasi forma atat la singular cat si plural. Le mai putem numi si substantive in Engleza fara plural.
Singular sau plural, au aceeasi forma.

Cum iti dai seama cand este vorba despre singular? Cand iti dai seama ca este plural? Raspunsul este simplu. Din context. Ex.

  • fish fish             peste/pesti  The fisherman caught a lot of fish the other day.
  • sheep sheep     oaie/oi  I count sheep before falling asleep.
  • deer deer          caprioara/caprioare  They have deer in their backgarden.
  • moose moose   We saw two moose at the zoo.
  • aircraft aircraft  aeronavaTwo different aircraft were spotted in the sky that day.
  • trout trout          pastrav   Trout instinctively swim upstream to lay their eggs and reproduce close to the place where they were born.

Trebuie sa vezi aceste substantive in context pentru a le identifica la singular sau la plural. Ex:

  • Mark caught one fish, but I caught three fish.

Substantive cu forme de plural

Sunt substantive care au forma de plural chiar si la singular.

  • series – series  serie     We saw the whole series last year.
  • species – species  specie These animals belong to the same species.
  • barracks barracks  They were sent back to the barracks.
  • news news     stiri  They were really glad when they heard the news.
  • I can see a sheep in the field. I can see ten sheep in the field.

Substantive care se termina in -is

Daca substantivul se termina in -is, pluralul se termina in -es.
Singular Plural

  • analysis   analyses analiza
  • basis       bases            baza
  • crisis       crises            criza
  • ellipsis     ellipses         elipsa
  • oasis       oases            oaza
  • appendix – appendices apendix
  • diagnosis diagnoses    diagnostic
Substantive in Engleza la plural
Substantive in Engleza la plural

Substantive care se termina in -us

Daca substantivul se termina in -us, se va schimba la plural in -i. Astfel, vom avea: Ex.

  • Singular Plural
  • cactus – cacti cactus
  • fungus – fungi  ciuperca
  • stimulus – stimuli  stimul
  • syllabus – syllabi  program de studiu
  • nucleus – nuclei  nucleu
  • larva-  larvae     larva

Exceptii: octupus – octupuses (provine din limba greaca, nu latina),

  • An octopus is a sea creature. Caracatita etse o creatura marina.
  • Octopuses are sea cretures.

Substantive care se termina in on

Substantivele care se termina in  -on, la plural adauga -a. Astfel vom avea: Ex.

  • phenomenon – phenomen  fenomen
  • criterion – criteria                criteriu

Substantive neregulate la plural

Substantivele neregulate nu au reguli specifice asa ca trebuie sa le retii asa cum sunt. Gasesti in dictionar atat formele de singular cat si cele de plural. Astfel, vom avea: Ex

  • child – children    copil/copii
  • goose – geese    gasca/gaste
  • man – men          barbati/barbati
  • woman – women femeie/femei
  • tooth – teeth        dinte/dinti
  • foot – feet            picior/picioare
  • mouse – mice      soarece/soareci
  • person – people  persoana/persoane
Exercitii cu pluralul substantivelor

Choose the correct form of the noun in each sentence:

1)I have three (child, children).
2)There are five (man, men) and one (woman, women).
3)(Baby, Babies) ususally play with bottles as toys.
4)I put two big (potato, potatoes) in the lunch box.
5)Fewer men wear (watch, watches) now than they used to.
6)I put a (memo, memos) on the desk, on the right.
7)I saw a (mouse, mice) running to the kitchen.
8)There are few (bus, buses) on the road today.

Sper ca totul este clar legat despre pluralul substantivelor pentru a invata Engleza corect si eficient. Daca ai intrebari, ne poti lasa un comentariu mai jos.

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