Cum exprimam trecutul in limba Engleza?
Past Simple -Trecutul – in limba Engleza este folosit pentru a exprima actiuni care s-au intamplat sau lucruri care au existat in trecut. Este vorba de actiuni incheiate care nu mai au legatura cu prezentul.
De obicei, acest lucru este accentuat de prezenta unor adverbe care arata ca actiunea a acut loc la un anumt moment dat in trecut. In cazul in care apare un astfel de adverb in propozitie, actiunea va fi exprimata prin Past Simple – Trecutul in limba Engleza.
Cum se formeaza Past Simple – Trecutul in limba Engleza?
Trebuie sa stim cum se formeaza trecutul Simplu. Dupa cum probabil stii, in limba Engleza verbele pot fi regulate si neregulate.
- I walked to the station yesterday. She received several gifts on her birthday.
Past Simple -verbe regulate
Verbele regulate primesc -d, -ed, or -ied, la sfarsit, in functie de consoanele sau vocalele cu care se termina.
Se adauga -d la verbele care se termina in vocala:
- They closed the shop earlier.
- She lived in London in the 1970s.
- The cat died last year.
Verbele care se termina in consoana, adauga -ed .
- She cleaned the kitchen and the bathroom last week.
We add -ied to verbs ending in a consonant+y. hurry -hurried, carry -carried
- He hurried to the station to catch the train.
She carried the luggage to the car all by herself.
Verbele care se termina in -y precedat de o vocala, primesc doar -ed. ex. stay-stayed, play-played.
Se dubleaza consoana finala
Verbele care se termina in consoana, precedata de vocala, isi dubleaza consoana finala. ex
Plan -planned, stop-stopped
- They planned their holiday in detail.
- He stopped at the shop on his way home.
In Engleza Britanica, la verbele terminate in -l, acesta se dubleaza:
In Engleza Americana, l-ul final nu se dubleaza. ex.canceled, traveled.
Deasemenea, se dubleaza consoana finala daca ultima silaba este accentuata:
prefer- preferred, regret -regretted
Daca nu este accentuata silaba finala, nu se dubleaza consoana finala:
Past Simple -verbe neregulate
Verbele neregulate au trei forme: forma de invinitiv din dictiona, forma a doua si forma a treia.
Pentru a forma trecutul in limba Engleza cu verbe neregulate, este nevoie de forma a doua. Nu exista o regula speciala pentru verbele neregulate. Ele trebuie invatate asa cum sunt, in multe exemple. Se pot invata si retine usor daca sunt folosite in scris sau vorbit.
- I was very busy. It was easy to do.
Was is the past form of to be for the 1st and the 3rd person singular.
We were there when they arrived. Were is the past form for you, we, they.
Some verbs have the same form but it is pronounced differently.
- I ready many books but I read that book two months ago.
Cele mai multe verbe neregulate au forme diferite la trecut, fata de infinitiv.
Most of the irregular verbs have different forms for the past simple.
- be was/were been She was a very good singer. There were very good friends.
- Have had had My friend had a house in the country and we used to spend the weekends there.
- do did done What you did was wrong
- write wrote written
- speak spoke spoken We spoke in several occasions in the past.
She wrote a two page essay and the teacher was impressed.
I did what I could at the time.
Past simple la negativ
Pentru a forma trecutul, in intrebari, se foloseste auxiliarul Did +negatia Not. Forma scurta a lui Did not este Didn’t
To make negative sentences we used Did+not. The contracted form in informal speech is didn’t.
- I didn’t know what to say so I made something up.
- We didn’t get home until very late last night.
Auxiliarul Did in intrebari
Pentru a pune intrebari legate de trecut, vom folosi auxiliarul Did. When we ask questions about the past we need to use the auxiliary Did.
- Did she play tennis when she was younger?
Did you live abroad?
When did you meet your wife?
Where did she go yesterday?
Past simple fara auxiliar in intrebari
Past Simple se poate folosi fara auxiliar in intrebari cu Who si What cand acestea se folosesc in locul subiectului.
But questions with who or what often don’t use did:
- Who discovered penicillin?
- What made you change your mind?
Exceptie cand aceste pronume interogative se folosesc ca obiect, complement.
- Who did you meet at the party?
- What did you do when you found it?
Past simple o data sau de mai multe ori
Folosim Trecutul – Past simple – cu actiuni care au avut loc o data sau de mai multe ori in trecut.
We use the past simple to talk about something that happened once or several times in the past:
- I met my wife in 2015.
- When I was a boy, I went to school by bus every day.
We need to use the past Simple with an action, taking place once, never or several times:
- They never spoke to each other when they were at home.
They moved house several times last year.
We can use the past simple with actions in the past, taking place one after the other
- He came in, took off his coat and sat down at his desk.
With an action in the past taking place in the middle of another action
- Someone rang the door bell when we were having breakfast.
We need to use the Past Simple to talk about something that was true for some time in the past:
- I lived abroad for ten years.
- I played a lot of tennis when I was younger.
- I used to live in London.
Past simple cu actiuni negative
Putem exprima actiuni sau lucruri care nu se intamplau in trecut dar se intampla acum
We can talk about things that weren’t true in the past but are true now.
- They didn’t get along very well. It means that:
- They didn’t get along very well in the past but they do now.
- I didn’t use to wear glasses which means I wear glasses now but I didn’t in the past.
Past simple cu Would
You can use would to talk about actions or past habits which you did in the past but you don’t do now.
- Dad would take us to the Zoo and then we would go to the park.
Present Simple pentru a exprima trecutul
Uneori, putem folosi Prezentul simplu pentrua vorbi despre lucruri din trecut. Aici, are sens similar cu folosirea lui Used to.
Sometimes you can use the Present Simple to talk about the Past. It is similar to the meaning of used to.
- The man doesn’t live here any more. It means He used to live here but doesn’t now. or.
- I don’t go swimming anymore. I used to go swimming in the past but now I don’t.
Trecutul in Conditional Tipul II
Pentru a exprima o actiune probabiula putem folosi trecutul simplu la tipul 2 de conditional.
In order to express a probable action we can use the past simple with the second conditional:
- If I had a lot of money, I would share it with you.
Acest timp este folosit pentru a exprima actiuni sua lucruri, stari care erau inainte de momentul acum si intelegem sau se specifica clar acest lucru.
This tense is used to describe actions or things that existed before now. Imagine someone asks you what you did or what you did or what you were like some time ago.
Adverbe pentru trecut
Stim ca trebuie sa folosim trecutul simplu cand avem momente exprimate de adverbe de timp precum:
- yesterday, the day before yesterday,
- last night, last week, last month, last year,
- hours ago, days ago, months ago, years ago
Folosim Past Simple sau trecutul simplu cand se mentioneaza momentul in trecut. (when we are talking about a specific point in the past.)
- I was born in 1977. They met in March,
Cu actiuni incheiate de putin timp
Putem folosi trecutul simplu cu actiuni incheiate recent daca se intelege ca au avut loc mai devreme in aceeasi zi. We can use the past simple when talking about an earlier time on the same day:
- Kate called me this morning.
Trecutul exprima actiuni sau stari care au legatura cu o anumita perioada, evenimente sau momente din trecut. The past simple is about a specific period of time, event or point in the past.
- When I was a student, I played football.
Exercitii cu trecutul simplu in Engleza
Sper ca acum este clar cand folosim Past Simple. Pentru a invata limba Engleza este nevoie sa ne asiguram ca stim cum sa folosim corect acest timp. daca aveti intrebari, ne puteti lasa un comentariu mai jos.