Cand Folosim Must si Have to?

Verbe modale ”Have to” si ”Must” in limba Engleza. Cum le folosim?

Astazi vorbim despre must si have to in gramatica limbii Engleze. Este important sa stim cand folosim Must si Have to pentru a sti sa ne exprimam corect in limba Engleza conversationala de zi cu zi.

Cum si cand folosim ”Must” si ”Have to”?

Must si have to sunt folosite pentru a exprima obligatia si de multe ori sunt destul de similare ca sens.

  • I must go now. / I have to go now.

Folosim ”must” pentru a exprima pareri mai personale despre ceva ce este necesar.

  • I must remember to get a present for my mother. (parere personala)
  • You must come. You are obliged to come. (eu iti cer sa vii)
  • Must I wear this tie? Am I obliged to wear this tie? (What do you think?)

Folosim ”have to” cand cineva cu autoritate spune ce este necesar.

  • You have to look after their hair regularly. Trebuie sa ai grija de par in mod regulat. (expertii spun asta)
  • Do you have to wear a tie for school? Trebuie sa porti cravata la scoala?  (reguli scolare)
  • You have to come. You are obliged to come. Trebuie sa vii. Esti obligat sa vii. (Regula spune ca trebuie sa vii)
  • Do I have to wear this tie? Am I obliged to wear this tie? Trebuie sa port cravata? (Exista vreo regula care spune ca trebuie sa port cravata?)

”Have to” – obligatii mai generale

”Have to” in general, exprima obligatii generale in timp ce ”must” exprima obligatii mai specifice.

  • I have to brush my teeth twice a day. Trebuie sa ma spal pe dinti de 2 ori pe zi.
    I must tell you something. Trebuie sa-ti spun ceva.

”Have to” este folosit mai des in vorbire

”Have to” este mai frecvent in conversatie; ”must” este mai folosit in scris. Este mai formal.

  • Passengers must fasten their seat-belts. Pasagerii trebuie sa-si puna centurile.

Forma verbelor modale Must si Have to la prezent, trecut si viitor

Have to isi schimba forma la persoana a-3-a sg (he/she/it has).

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Must nu se schimba. Ca orice verb modal, must are aceeasi forma la toate persoanele.

Folosim ”Must” sau need pentru a exprima obligatia, datoria sau necesitatea in prezent. La viitor sau trecut, folosim ”have to”.

  • We must (need to) buy another ticket. Trebuie sa cumparam un alt bilet.
  • We had to buy another ticket yesterday. A trebuit sa cumparam un alt bilet ieri.
  • We’ll have to buy another ticket later. Va trebui sa cumparam un alt bilet mai tarziu.

Cand folosim have got to?

Putem folosi ”have got to”, pentru obligatie, sihad better, pentru sfat a foarte mult in vorbire, in conversatie.

  • You’ve got to be careful with a cat. Trebuie sa ai mare grija cu pisica.
  • You’d better get something a bit quieter. Ar trebuie sa iei ceva mai putin zgomotos.
  • I’d better go – I mustn’t miss the helicopter! Ar trebui sa plec. Nu trebuie sa ratez elicopterul.

Foarte important! ”must” si ”have to”

La forma afirmativa, must si have to sunt destul de similare dar la forma negativa, cele doua sunt total diferite.

  • You mustn’t forget … Nu trebuie sa uiti … (don’t forget – nu ai de ales)
  • If you don’t like him, you don’t have to see him again. Daca nu-ti place de el, nu trebuie sa-l mai vezi. ( nu-i nici o obligatie. ai de ales)
  • In a non-smoking area you mustn’t smoke, but in a smoking area you don’t have to smoke but you can if you want to.

Mustn’t exprima interdictia – prohibition

You mustn’t drive. You are prohibited to drive. You are not allowed to drive. Nu trebuie sa conduci. Ti se interzice sa conduci. Nu ti se permite sa conduci.

Have to la negativ – lipsa obligatiei

Don’t have to exprima absenta obligatiei sau necesitatii.

  • You don’t have to drive. You are not obliged to drive. Nu trebuie sa conduci. Nu esti obligat sa conduci. (dar poti daca vrei)

Must – pentru sfat sau instructiuni clare, categorice

Putem folosi pe ”must” pentru instructiuni, sfat puternic, categoric.

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You must go for a walk with the dog at least once a day. Trebuie sa mergi la plimbare cu cainele de cel putin 2 ori pe zi.

Exercitii si practica

Ai mai jos exercitii pe care trebuie sa le faci pentur a intelege mai bine diferenta dintre ”must” si ”have to”!

Exercise 1
  1. You apologise; it isn’t necessary.
  2. You tell the boss what happened, or he’ll fire you.
  3. I wear a tie; I do it because I like wearing ties.
  4. You smoke in here; smoking is not allowed.
  5. I be late. It’s the most important meeting of the year.
  6. You go now; you can stay a bit longer.
  7. Visitors to the zoo feed the animals.
  8. You drive so fast; we have a lot of time.
  9. We cook more; there’s enough food.
  10. You put salt in her food; the doctor said she can’t eat salt.
Exercise 2
  1. You ____ tell anyone; it’s a secret.
  2. I _____ leave early because I wasn’t feeling well.
  3. You _____ do something to solve this problem.
  4. _____ pay for the car repair or did the insurance cover it?
  5. I don’t like these clothes, but I _____ wear them at work.
  6. Teacher: ‘You _____ arrive on time for class.
  7. We didn’t have money, so we _____ find a cash dispenser.
  8. We ______ leave now; it’s 10 and the conference doesn’t start until 12.
  9. The doctor has put me on a strict diet. I _____ eat more fruit and vegetables and do more exercise.
Exercise 3

Interviewer: 1 (you/work) at night?
Claire: Yes, I 2 (work) night shifts once every three weeks.
Interviewer: 3 (you/work) long hours?
Claire: No, I 4 (not work) long hours, but I can do paid overtime if I want.
Interviewer: Before you started to work for this company, 5 (you/do) on-the-job training?
Claire: Yes, and I 6 (study) a lot too.
Interviewer: What is the most difficult part of your job?
Claire: Well, I usually 7 (get up) very early and every three weeks I 8 (work) nights. In my previous job, a few years ago, I 9 (not work) night shifts and I 10 (not get up) so early.

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Exercise 4

Fill in the blanks with affirmative or negative forms of must or have to & has to.

1. It’s raining outside. Tim take his umbrella.
2. I can give you my car, so you buy a new one.
3. They be in a hurry, because they have got more than
enough time.
4. You stop at the red light.
5. Tomorrow is Sunday. You get up very early.
6. Mrs. Parks can’t see very well. She wear glasses.
7. You return them. They are too small for you.
8. I am broke, I borrow some money to buy a car.
9. You stop smoking. It is very harmful.
10. Mr. Dickson is travelling abroad this summer, so he get his passport soon.
11. All the students obey the school rules.
12. It’s freezing outside, so we take a cab and not walk.
13. Students look at their notes during the test.
14. I have a terrible headache, so I leave early.
15. Snow has blocked the roads. We stay here until it’s cleared.

Exercise 5

1. My dentist said that I neglect brushing my teeth.
2. There is another bus later, so we get on this one.
3. You leave any medicine where children can reach them.
4. This is a non-smoking area, so you smoke here.
5. The entrance is free of charge, so you buy a ticket.
6. You sleep late today, you have an important meeting in the morning.
7. This is our gift to you. You give it back to us.
8. The sign said that one eat in the library.
9. It’s Friday today. I do any homework.
10. Judy stay home, I will take care of the baby.

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