Articolul Nehotarat in limba Engleza
Articolul nehotarat in Engleza se aseaza in fata substantivelor numarabile, la singular. Substantivele nenumarabile nu pot primi articol nehotarat. De asemenea, substantivele la plural nu sunt precedate de artiol nehotarat. Ca si alte articole, articolul nehotarat este invariabil. Are formele ”a” si ”an”.
Cum folosim articolul nehotarat?
Sunt doua forme articole nehotarate ”a” si ”an”. Poti folosi ori unul, ori celalalt, in functie de litera/sunetul cu care incepe cuvantul pe care il preceda, din motive legate de pronuntie.
Cuvinte care incep cu consoane
Pentru cuvinte care incep cu consoane, folosim ”a”. Ex.
- a man – There is a man in front of the bulding.
- a car – A blue car was parked outside.
- a helicopter – Have you ever flown in a helicopter before?
- a big elephant – We saw a big elephant at the Zoo.
Cuvinte care incep cu vocale
Pentru cuvinte care incep cu vocale, folosim ”an”
Inaintea cuvintelor care incep cu vocale folosim ”an”. Vocalele in Engleza sunt urmatoarele: a,e,i,o,u.
Vom folosi articolul ”an” chiar si cu substantivele care incep cu consoane, cu conditia ca acestea sa fie precedate de adjective, numerale care incep cu o vocala.
- an apple,
- an onion,
- an elephant
- an ugly duck – That is an ugly duck.
- an interesting idea – I think this is an interesting idea.
- an inspiring lesson – This is an inspiring lesson.
Deasemenea, folosim tot articolul nehotarat an inaintea cuvintelor care incep cu ”h”, atunci cand acesta nu se pronunta. Ex.
- an hour,
- an honest man.
- an honourable man – He was an honourable man.
- an hour – He gets 15 pounds an hour.
- an honour – It is an honour.
Folosim ”a” inaintea cuvintelor care incep cu h atunci cand acesta se pronunta. ex.
- a helicopter,
- a hotel – They were staying at a hotel.
- a history class – I learnt that during a history class.
- a heavy burden – That’s a heavy burden to carry.
- a hard working day – He was heading home after a hard working day.
Folosim ”a” inaintea cuvintelor care incep cu ”u” sau ”e” atunci cand acestea se pronunta ca in cuvantul you. Ex.
- a european – Romania is a European country.
- a university – He was a University professor.
- a unit – He was placed in a unit with other fellow Americans.
- a unique experience – They had a unique experience travelling to Hawaii.
Cand folosim articolul nehotarat?
Articolul hotarat in limba Engleza se refera la ceva, pentru prima data. Obiectul nu este cunoscut anterior vorbitorului, ca in cazul articolului hotarat. Poate fi folosit pentru individualiza un anumit membru, al unui grup sau clase. Ex.
- a cup of tea – Would you like a cup of tea?
- a job – She has a good job.
- an elephant – An elephant and a mouse fell in love.
Se foloseste cu numele profesiei, meseriei. Ex.
- an engineer -He worked as an engineer in his native country.
- an architect – Ben became an architect after graduation from the university.
- a dentist – Her father is a dentist and her mother is a teacher.
- a dancer – She wants to be a dancer.
Apartenenta la grup
Pentru a denumi membrii unui grup. Exprima apartenenta la un grup. Ex.
- a liberal – John is a liberal.
- a racist – He’s a racist
- a conservative
Pentru a denumi nationalitatea sau religia.Ex.
- Ben is an Englishman.
- Mary is a Catholic.
- He is a Muslim.
- Her fiancee is a Christian and she is Jewish.
Cu o zi in general
Poti folosi articolul nehotarat ”a” cu numele zilelor saptamanii, atunci cand nu te referi la o zi anume. Ex.
- I was born on a Friday.
Cu expresii: What a, Such a, Ex.
- What a pity!
- What a shame !
- What a lovely day !
- She’s such a beautiful girl .
- Don’t make such a big deal out of it!
Pentru a inlocui numeralul
Foloseste ”a” sau ”an” cu substantive numarabile la singular! Articolul hotarat poate inlocui numeralul cardinal ”one” in propozitii. Ex.
- I’d like an orange and two lemons please.
- I can think of a hundred reasons.
- He can run a mile in 15 minutes!
Cu substantive de cantitate, atunci cand acestea sunt precedate de formele: a little, a piece, a loaf, a kilogram, a slice, etc
- He ate a loaf of bread at dinner.
- I need a kilogram of flour.
In definitii cu sens general
Folosim articolul ”a” sau ”an” cu substantive la singural, in definitii, cu sens general. Ex.
- An octopus is a sea creature with eight tentacles.
La plural, aceleasi substantive isi pierd articolul sau spunem ca sunt precedate de articolul Zero.
- Octopuses are ocean creatures that are most famous for having eight tentacles and bulbous heads.
Articolul Nehotarat in Engleza – Exercitii
Ai mai jos, cateva exercitii pentru a intelege mai bine cand trebuie sa folosesti articolul hotarat si cand trebuie sa folosesti articolul nehotarat in Engleza.
Completeaza spatiile libere, folosind articolul corect:
In Jane’s schoolbag there is … English book, …. eraser, ruler, … umbrella, …. folder, …. pencil case, … glue stick, …. sharpener, …. english dictionary, …. exercise book, … pen, … orange marker and …. mobile phone.
In Mark’s room there is … bed, … rug, … desk, … armchair, …. desk, laptop, bookshelf, … sofa with … orange cushion, … plant, … wastepaper basket and … wardrobe.
In our house we have a lot of rooms.
There is … living room, … bedroom, … office, … bathroom, … guest room, … kitchen, … laundry room, … dining room and toilet.
…. house also has … attic and … basement. Next to … house there is … garage.
Completeaza spatiile libere, folosind a, an sau the! Lasa spatiul liber daca nici unul dintre ele nu este potrivit!
There is … green English book on the desk. It is right next to … red pencil.
She’s reading … old comic book.
They’ve got … great idea. They think they may have found … solution to … problem.
She is drinking … cup of coffee. She doesn’t like … tea.
The girl’s father is … pilot. He is also … good driver.
I hope you know that Cluj has … airport.
This is … very expensive bike. I paid … lot of money for it.
Look! There’s … bird flying. It is … grey pigeon.
My uncle is … honest man. He is also … most reliable person I know.
My best friend likes to be … astronaut. She wants to become … asgtronaut or at least … pilot.
Apples currently cost 1.30 … pound. They are more expensive now.
Cheetahs can run 60 miles … hour. They are said to be … fastest animals on …. planet.
You want 150 … person for the tour?
Completeaza spatiile libere, folosind articolul corect:
He had …. little difficulty with his homework.
She has … few friends who can help her move.
Can I borrow … phone? I need to make … phone call.
I really don’t like this. I need to make … complaint.
He’s really upset about what you said. You need to make him … apology.
The child made … mess in the kitchen yesterday.
We may have made … mistake there.
After three years the business is still making … loss.
You can make … progress. Your son has made … lot of progress lately.
You made me … promise last year.
They are throwing … party tonight.
I need to take … photo of this room.
We are making … barbecue in the garden this afternoon.
Make sure you don’t make … accident on the road!
You are practising … new word in English.
I make … new English lesson every week. You can find … interesting video for each lesson, on You Tube.