Adjectivul in limba Engleza
Adjectivul in Engleza ne spune ceva, ne ofera informatie suplimentara despre o persoana sau un lucru. Altfel spus, adjectivul descrie substantivul.
Iata ce poti invat despre Adjectivul in Engleza in acest articol:
- Ce este adjectivul
- Locul adjectivelor in propozitie
- Cum se formeaza adjectivele?
- Adjectivele in Engleza- Gradele de comparatie
- Ordinea adjectivelor multiple
Ele modifica atat substantivele cat si pronumele. Mary is a nice girl. This is a nice car. She is very careful. It is beautiful.
Ce informatii ofera Adjectivul in Engleza?
Ofera informatie suplimentara despre substantiv, indicand opinia, observatia personala, marimea, forma, varsta, culoarea, originea, materialul si scopul.
It’s a big table. (marime)
It’s a round table. (forma)
It’s an old table. (Varsta)
It’s a brown table. (culoare)
It’s an English table. (origine)
It’s a wooden table. (material)
It’s a lovely table. (opinie)
It’s a broken table. (observatie)
It’s a coffee table. (scop)
Intrebarile la care pot raspunde Adjectivul in Engleza
Adjectivele raspund la intrebari de genul: „Which one?,” „How many?,” „Whose?,” si „What kind?”
Unde sta adjectivul in propozitie?
Inaintea substantivului sau dupa verb. Ex.
- The girl is careful.
Poti pune adjectivul dupa verb. Ex.
- It was cold, wet and windy.
Adjective cu verbe
Poti folosi adjective dupa urmatoarele verbe:
- I was not at all amused by the discussion.
Children get bored very quickly.
The end of the film was really exciting for me.
Poti folosi mai multe adjective in aceeasi propozitie:
- It was cold, wet and windy.
Cum se formeaza Adjectivul in Engleza?
Adjectivele in limba Engleza se formeaza prin adaugarea de prefixe si sufixe, din alte parti de vorbire precum substantivele si verbele. Este important sa stii cum se formeaza adjectivele pentru a invata Engleza usor.
Intalnim o multime de adjective care provin substantive dar si din verbe. Acestea din urma sunt constructii participiale.
- Yesterday I read an amusing story in a magazine.
Doris has a boring job.
We watched the group of excited people.
Prin adaugarea de sufixe:
- -able: adorable, inflammable, comfortable, uncomfortable
- -ible: invisible, responsible,
- -al: educational, gradual, illegal, nocturnal, viral
- -an: American, urban
- -ar: cellular, popular, spectacular, vulgar
- -ent: intelligent, silent, violent
- -ful: beautiful, harmful, powerful, tasteful, thoughtful
- -ic/-ical: classical, athletic, energetic, magical, scientific
- -ine: bovine, canine, equine, feminine, masculine
- -ile: agile, docile, fertile, virile
- -ive: informative, native, talkative
- -less: careless, endless, homeless, timeless
- -ous: cautious, dangerous, enormous, malodorous
- -some: awesome, handsome, lonesome, wholesome
Multe adjective se termina in -y, -ary, -ate, -ed, si -ing.
Adjectivele in Engleza- Grade de comparatie
Adjective scurte cu terminatie -er
Adjectivele scurte isi formeaza comparativul prin adaugarea terminatiei – er. Ex.
- big -bigger ( adjectivele care se termina in consoana precedata de vocala, isi dubleaza consoana finala)
sunny-sunnier ( adjectivele care se termina in -y, pierd -y si primesc -ier)
busy -busier -the busiest
happy, happier, happiest
easy, easier, easiest
funny, funnier, funniest
- We were busier last week than this week.
- Are you happier now that you’ve changed your job?
- That was the easiest exam I’ve ever taken.
La comparativ, adjectivele arata ca un lucru sau o persoana are mai multa calitate sau mai putina decat altele.
- Josh is taller than his sister. Music is more interesting than chemistry.
- Big cars that use a lot of petrol are less popular now than twenty years ago.
- Dan is older than Victor.
Adjectivele lungi isi formeaza comparativul cu ajutorul formelor: ”more” si ”less”
- More important- less important – mai important, mai putin important
- more interesting – less interesting – mai interesant, mai putin interesant
La forma de Superlativ, adjectivele descriu o persoana sau unn lucru ca avand cea mai multa calitate decat altele dintr-un grup.
Superlativul se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei articol hotarat The si terminatia -est pentru adjectivele scurte.
hard – the hardest
big – the biggest
shot- the shortest
- This will be the fastest train in the world when it is built.
- This is the most frightening film I’ve ever seen.
- What is the least expensive way of travelling in London?
- She is the youngest girl in the family.
The Most, The Least
Adjectivele lungi isi formeaza superlativul cu ajutorul formelor: ”the most” si ”the least”
- The most important, The least important
- The second lecture was more interesting than the first.
- That way of calculating the figures seems less complicated to me.
Adjective scurte neregulate
Unele adjective au forme neregulate pentru a formele de comparativ si superlativ.
bad, worse, worst far, farther/further, farthest/furthest
good, better, best old, older/elder, oldest/eldest
- The morning flight is better than the afternoon one.
- His elder sister works for the government.
- Olivia is Jane’s best friend.
- I think that was the worst film I’ve ever seen!
- Pluto is the furthest planet from the sun in our solar system.
- It’s colder today than yesterday.
- It was a longer holiday than the one we had last year.
- I think that’s the biggest apple I’ve ever seen!
- They have three boys. Richard is the oldest and John is the youngest.
-er si -est pentru adjective formate din doua silabe
Pot primi terminatii -er si -est si adjectivele formate din doua silabe:
clever, cleverer, cleverest
quiet, quieter, quietest
narrow, narrower, narrowest
simple, simpler, simplest
- I’ve always thought that Donald was cleverer than his brother.
- This new bed is narrower than the old one.
- The guest bedroom is the quietest room in the house because it overlooks the garden.
- Nu folosim in mod normal termiantiile -er and -est cu adjectivele care se termina in -ful. Folosim more si the most/least: Ex.
- This dictionary is more useful than the one we had before.
- You’ll have to try to be more careful in future.
- The most useful tool in the kitchen is a good sharp knife.
- This is the least harmful chemical in terms of the environment.
- London is the most popular tourist destination in England.
- If you are going as a group, the least expensive option is to rent an apartment or villa.
Comparativele pot folosi: much, a lot, far, pentru a accentua gradul de comparatie.
We can strengthen or emphasise a comparative adjective using words such as much, a lot, far, even or rather, or by using than ever after the adjective:
- This food is much better than the food we had yesterday.
- The town is a lot more crowded these days because of the new shopping centre.
- This boy is far less intelligent than the other kids in the class.
- We’ve been busier than ever at work this last month or so.
Putem folosi: a little or a bit. A bit is mai putin formal.
She feels a little/a bit more confident now that she’s given her first public performance.
Cand comparam doua persoane si un pronume tine locul numelui, vom folosi foma de complement: me, you, him, her, us, them.
- You’re stronger than me.
- She is more experienced than him.
In situatii mai formale, putem folosi:
- You managed to answer the ten questions correctly? Well, you’re definitely cleverer than I am!
- I preferred Mary to Dan. She was always more sociable than he was.
Formele de comparatie a adjectivelor lungi: -er and -er, more and more
- The weather is getting hotter and hotter.
- I’m getting more and more interested in the global warming these days.
Forme de comapratie cu articol hotarat: ”’The -er, the -er and the more …, the more …”
- The colder it is, the hungrier I get. (as the weather gets colder, I get hungrier)
- The more generous you are towards others, the more generous they are likely to be towards you.
Less and not as/not so
Folosim ”less” cu adjectivele lungi: interesting, beautiful, complicated.
- The second method was less complicated than the first one.
Not as… as
Cu adjectivele scurte, (big, good, high, small), folosim ”not as … as …, or not so … as. Not as… ass, este mai frecvent folosit.
- This new laptop is not as fast as my old one. I’m sorry I bought it now.
Exista o anumita ordine a cuvintelor in Engeza, atunci cand avem un sir de adjective. Acestea nu se separa prin virgula. Vorbitorii nativi pun adjective in ordinea corecta in mod natural.
- Articol – An article (a, an, the), numar sau cantitate, adjectiv posesiv (my, his, her, its, your, our, their), sau demonstrativ (this, that, these, those)
- Observatie/Opinie – Beautiful, expensive, gorgeous, broken, delicious, ugly
- Marime – Huge, tiny, 4-foot-tall
- Forma – Square, circular, oblong
- Varsta – 10-year-old, new, antique
- Culoare – Black, red, blue-green
- Origine – Roman, English, Mongolian
- Material – Silk, silver, plastic, wooden
- Qualifier – Un substantiv sau un verb care se comporta ca un adjectiv
- My beautiful big circular antique brown English wooden coffee table was broken in the move.
Adjective in Engleza – Exercitii
Folositi forma corecta a adjectivelor din paranteze: (comparativul sau superlativul.
My house is (big) than yours.
This flower is (beautiful) than that one.
This is the (interesting) book I have ever read.
Non-smokers usually live (long) than smokers.
Which is the (dangerous) animal in the world?
A holiday by the sea is (good) than a holiday in the mountains.
It is strange but often a coke is (expensive) than a beer.
Who is the (rich) woman on earth?
The weather this summer is even (bad) than last summer.
He was the (clever) thief of all.
Completati spatiile goale:
He is ………………… than his neighbors. rich. …
The brides were much ……………… than the grooms. young. …
He is too ………………… to be taught. intelligent. …
He is ………………… than I thought him to be. …
When the old woman became …………………, she began to move about. …
He is much ………………… now. …
The offer was too ………………… to be true. …
He fishes with …………………
Inavata Engleza practica facand cat mai multe exercitii cu adjectivul si celelalte parti de vorbire!